Saturday, March 14, 2020
Catseyes are road studs Essays Catseyes are road studs Essay Catseyes are road studs Essay Catseyes are route he-mans that contain retroreflectors : optical devices that reflect light beams back along a way analogue to that of the incident ray. ( BBC h2g2 2004 ) Percy Shaw foremost invented cats-eye reflectors in 1934, after he had been driving on a twist route at dark and had been saved from driving off the border by cat s eyes reflecting his headlamps back to him. Percy Shaw so set about contriving a device to mime the consequence that this cat s eyes had had on his headlamps. Originally it was two marbles in a metal shell that he intended to be put at regular intervals along the center and border of severely illuminated roads. The thought was so successful that it is now hard to come across a major route in the United Kingdom that does non hold cats-eyes on it. Percy Shaw s original design has evolved slightly since its construct in 1934, for illustration plastic is used alternatively of metal for the shell, which though cheaper to fabricate is besides much less lastin g and more likely to interrupt. One of the most recent updates is the inclusion of blue LED visible radiations, which are really low power but bright, alternatively of being brooding surfaces. These are still in the test phases and have non been proven to work every bit efficaciously as the older designs yet. Cat s eyes were a radical merchandise that made a immense impact on the safety of both British, and worldwide, roads. But the procedure of conveying them to market successfully took Percy Shaw over 10 old ages. The initial development of catseyes was a long and drawn out procedure because catseyes was an wholly new construct and so had no relation to any earlier merchandises. It was a trade name new invention ; Shaw was taking a way the no 1 had antecedently attempted. The initial innovation was a dramatis personae Fe shoe with a gum elastic lodging for the reflectors. In my sentiment The mastermind of this design is the manner that Shaw made them self-cleaning. The catseyes were designed to keep rainwater and the gum elastic lodging was retractable. There was a lip merely below the top of the molding so that when a auto drove over it the lodging would abjure into the molding traveling past the lip, which in-turn would supercharge the rainwater, and spray upwards onto the reflectors cleaning them. This invention meant that the catseyes were efficaciously self-sufficing. I feel that this is one ground why when the British authorities adopted them they were so successful and why Shaw was able to take them worldwide. They provide a low cost, low care manner to better safety on roads, which in some development states where there may be many severely illuminated roads, is a benefit as the costs of implementing them are far less than those of street lamps. When they were foremost innovated Shaw was the lone maker of catseyes, necessarily this would non remain the instance for long as people became cognizant of his innovation and attempted to make similar versions. This was proven when, In 1937, the UK s Ministry of Transport ran a competition to place the best route reflector. After two old ages, there was merely one smuggler left in the race ( Shaw s innovation ) ; the others had either broken or were no longer reflecting. ( BBC h2g2 2004 ) This shows the mastermind of Shaw s design as no 1 could fit it. I feel that this was a immense measure, for Shaw, towards establishing catseyes decently. By this clip they had been proven to the authorities nevertheless they still showed important opposition to following the catseyes as they were merely mandated them 10 old ages subsequently. Percy Shaw set up the company Reflecting Road he-man LTD in 1935 before the authorities authorization had been approved. After a mass blackout during the Second World War, ten old ages subsequently, merely so did the authorities authorization Shaw s innovation ( Anon. , 2009 ) . I believe that this was the instance because although Shaw s construct was a good thought, s it was a construct that needed authorities backup in order to work and this was ever traveling to be hard to acquire because it was such a extremist new innovation. Even though Shaw s catseyes had been tried and tested in 1937 ( BBC h2g2, 2004 ) there was non important adequate demand for them to do it economically feasible. In a manner the Second World War was fortunate for Percy Shaw as it highlighted to the British Government that without any visible radiations on the route drive became highly risky to all. There is ever the statement that with headlamps catseyes should be wholly unneeded on roads. The ground being that the white lines in the Centre of roads provide some contemplation from headlamps and if drivers are driving with due attention and attending it should nt be necessary. In my sentiment this is non a strong statement as if another blackout occurred catseyes would be the lone manner for drivers to drive safely. It seems to me from researching catseyes that Percy Shaw did nt hold a launch scheme for his innovation. He merely expected to do it and so seek and sell it to the Government, who already had a scheme for safe night-time drive, street visible radiations. I believe that if the blackout in the Second World War had non happened catseyes would non hold been adopted in 1947 ( anon. , 2009 ) and they may even non be in usage today as it was possible Shaw could hold lost the thrust to maintain seeking after over 10 old ages. This I believe shows how luck is frequently a big factor in entrepreneurship, but besides that nevertheless good the innovation is without the right launch platform it may neer take off. You need to be in the right topographic point at the right clip, fortuitously for Shaw he had 10 old ages of fabrication and innovating of his original design so he was able to stave off any possible competition. The chief job nevertheless for Shaw was that his merchandise was a distinc t alteration, a wholly new innovation, alternatively of being a gradual alteration, which is adding to already exists. ( Joseph Schumpeter, day of the month Unknown ) Efficaciously this amounted to it being a really riotous invention. It was a clear interruption from the bing engineering that was in topographic point, and as there was no old informations on effectual usage or safety or even dependability of catseyes. It seemed a immense hazard for the Government to follow. Freeman ( 1984 ) states that stakeholders are anyone who affects or are affected by a house making its ends. Percy Shaw s house making its ends affected the full population of the state. By eventually holding his merchandise adopted on a nationwide graduated table in 1947 it made the populatin was affected by driving going safer, catseyes were used on severely illuminated roads, a good as in concurrence with roads that had street lamps. It is non merely the general populace that has benefited from the acceptance of catseyes which has meant tonss of re-surfacing of roads, as the reflectors have to be built in, which has in bend provided concern for the primary and secondary industries that are associated with route edifice and care. Environmentally there has besides been an impact as I feel that catseyes cut down the immediate physiological reaction to set power devouring street lamps to light roads, particularly when they may non be major main roads. Catseyes give the authorities an alternate environmentally friendly option. Percy Shaw overcame many obstructions when developing catseyes and I believe that the design of them was one of the biggest obstructions he had to get the better of. He had to develop something that would be little plenty so as to non interrupt autos on the route but besides strong plenty to be driven over and battered on a day-to-day, if non hourly footing. The success of Shaw s innovation is particularly seen in the fact that Shaw was bring forthing one million catseyes a twelvemonth the extremum of the Shaw s concern ( James Ashton, 2009 ) . In recent times the catseyes have started to be developed more and more by different companies. Shaw s original design as I have antecedently stated went through some considerable alterations, for illustration utilizing fictile alternatively of metal for the shell and plastic alternatively of gum elastic for the lodging of the reflectors. What is more there are now other houses bring forthing more and more attractive devices for the authoritie s, as a replacing for catseyes such as Clearview s Solar Lite route he-man, which Instead of reflecting visible radiation, the he-mans are charged by the Sun s beams during the twenty-four hours and release visible radiation during the night. ( James Ashton, 2009 ) Percy Shaw created an wholly new industry from his one innovation that is still turning today as we try to happen replacings for street lamps and other power devouring route safety equipment in an effort to command our C emanations. Whilst, nevertheless, Shaw s innovation was superb, he was merely able to sell it in important Numberss when there became a despairing demand for it. I feel that if he had had fiscal angels and had set up a larger substructure for his innovation earlier so this advanced innovation may hold evolved even further by now. This is a really of import lesson for other enterprisers to larn, it highlights the fact that even though they may hold a good thought, they need to hold sufficient resources and substructure in order to hold a opportunity of being successful. These yearss there are so many enterprisers out at that place that you can non wait for fortune to establish your invention. Refrences BBC h2g2 2004. Catseyes [ Online ] ( Created 14 December 2004 ) Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3320939 Accessed 20 November 2009 ( Anon 2009 ) BBC News 2009 Five British heroes overlooked by history [ Online } Updated 17 November 2009 Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8364465.stm ( Accessed 24 November 2009 ) James Ashton 2009 Turn off the street visible radiations, these solar-powered cat s eyes radiance, Times Online [ Internet ] 9 August 2009 Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/article6788584.ece Freeman, R. ( 1984 ) Strategic Management: A Stake-holder Approach. Boston: Pitman.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Homestasis - Thermoregulation and control of blood sugar - Essay Example The hypothalamus effects changes in response to alterations in body temperature by activating adjustments to effectors in the form of muscles manipulating body hair movement and operation of the sweat glands. Hence, the human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢ temperature can only be regarded as stable provided that the heat produced matches heat lost. The sustenance of the temperature of the body at a steady level is paramount given that the living processes within the cells closely depends on the action of the enzymes that work effectively in a set of stable conditions, especially at optimal temperature and pH. Any alterations in the set properties influence the utility of the enzymes and can yield to the death of the cells, and, ultimately, the death of the whole organism. This stresses the significance of regulation and sustenance of a constant internal environment. Nevertheless, the internal environment may not be entirely constant as it may be tolerated to fluctuate, albeit at exceptionally constric ted limits. Indeed, temperature regulation is imperative given that the speed of metabolic reactions is directed by enzymes activity that only functions optimally at temperatures that neighbor bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s core temperature of 37Ã °C. ... Devoid of enzymes activity, much of critical bodily functions would fail to take place at the required level, which leads to the death of the cells. Q2 How the body gain and lose heat The outside temperature mainly differs significantly as the day progresses; however, the body temperature ought to be sustained at the core temperature of 37Ã °C. This is well demonstrated in JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s case given must be sustained at a constant 37Ã °C with minimal variations while the outside environment is bound to change (Sircar 2008, 697). Given that the temperature in New York City stood at 10Ã °C and there is a possibility that the temperature fluctuated prior the race, during the race, and after the race, JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s body must adapt to the changing external environment. This is achieved via a number of processes through which the body is subjected to, namely: vasodilation, sweating, shivering, and vasoconstriction (Sircar 2008, 697). During the race in which JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s body temperat ure rises owing to the rise in metabolism, the sweat glands located within the skin are activated to secrete/release sweat on to the surface of the skin. The action of evaporation of sweat from JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s surface yields to rapid cooling of the body, which, in turn, yields a drop in body temperature. How JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s body Generate Heat Body energy (heat) is essentially gained through the action of two critical methods, namely: energy generation through metabolic and energy acquisition from environmental. JamelÃ¢â¬â¢s body heat generation and preservation are facilitated by a number of factors: (1) increased muscular activity such as via shivering, which entails the transfer of stored chemical energy, which yields to a net increase in body heat around the skeletal muscle that flows
Monday, February 10, 2020
Story analysis - Assignment Example He has come to know that, if he truly loves his brother, he should respect his desire for freedom and individuality and to appreciate how music frees all of them from their inner struggles. The story has the theme of brotherly love. The narrator cannot seem to show his love for his brother whom he has harshly judged, when the latter chose to be a jazz player instead of finishing college and especially when he became addicted to heroin. This short story includes their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s narration of what happened to their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. Their father lost his brother due to racism and injustice. His mother reminds the narrator to take care of his brother: Ã¢â¬Å"You may not be able to stop nothing from happening. But you got to let him know youÃ¢â¬â¢s thereÃ¢â¬ (Baldwin par. 112). She tells his son to love his brother whatever happens because the world is already cruel, and the only way to make it less cruel is to ensure that they have each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s back whatever happens. If they suffer, and they will, they must suffer
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Transformational Leadership, Policy, and Change Essay Abstract This paper will focus on how effective Leadership can influence policy and change in the United States healthcare system. The implementation of new policy, program, and institutional change is often meant to improve the quality of the nations ever-changing healthcare system. Several journal articles and texts have been selected particularly with a focus on leadership strategies to improve the quality of healthcare, and leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to influence implemented changes to the system. The question proposed is; does leadership encourage and influence both public and private initiatives that measure health outcomes, and organize systems to improve health services when new policies, programs, and institutional changes occur? The issues summarized in this paper are supported by scholarly journals and texts that offer several perspectives, including real life examples that will illustrate my argument that effective leadership can impact changes within the healthcare system. Our great nation has had a significant history of leadership both transactional and transformational throughout its existence. I venture to say that leadership is not just about performing a job: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about making a difference. When considering changes to healthcare, whether it is institutional, program, or policy, the importance and ability for leadership to put systems in place that strategically fulfill the goals and measures identified are extremely important. For example, with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the future of healthcare has become more defined as noted by Baldwin; The Circle Way: A Leader in Every Chair (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"To serve as effective leaders, we must understand the context for our leadership rolesÃ¢â¬ânamely, the changing health care system and particularly, the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that President Obama signed into law on March of 2010. The Affordable Care Act resulted from months of intense Congressional action and serves as a reminder thatÃ fundamental legislative changes do not happen overnight. Congressional tinkering over the 75 years since President Roosevelt attempted to enact national health insurance has yielded little by way of major change in health care programs, except for the addition of Medicare and Medicaid by President Johnson and the addition of Medicare coverage for prescription medications by President George W. BushÃ¢â¬Å". The new health care reform law is more than just a big change. It promises to be transformative as suggested by Baldwin, Ã¢â¬Å"that the old framework is disappearing because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what the new normal will look like, and that uncertainty creates angst among consumers and health care providers in all fields, clearly leadership will play an important role in defining the path more clearly. Examples of the types of leadership needed are transformational and transactional leadership.Ã¢â¬ The success of health care reform will also depend on collaboration among regulators, insurers, and providers. Success hinges on an approach to regulation that is flexible enough, particularly on antitrust issues, to ensure that these groups can cooperate to pursue the goal of providing access to high quality health care at a cost the public can accept. As noted by Linsky, Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Though the Dangers of Leading (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Transformational leaders are driven by a moral or ethical imperative. They forsake a transactional leadership style in pursuit of something that must be done in and of its own right. For the transformational leader, the pain of leadership is exceeded only by the pain of lost potential. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, reflects the political exchange of resources, and is dominated by the coalition that possesses the most resources as measured in the current paradigm. There is a huge price to be paid by the transformational leader. It takes immense courage to challenge the vested interests of the dominant coalition that is threatened by ideas that shift the paradigm. It is also painful to be rejected by those whom you would seek to leadÃ¢â¬Å". Changing market demands in health care mean we need new models for delivering services in a more agile, responsive and effective w ay. I believe that leaders have the ability to translate personal talent, skills, and qualities into action that can influence change. Leaders take a stand for what they believe in and work to convince others to think and act differently as new policies, program change, and health care systems are implemented. Given the implementation of new program and policy changes leaders are driven to find better ways of doing things, and take paths that others fear to tread. Leaders empower people by providing new pathways to success, implementing new procedures, and guidance that enable others to move forward with a clear vision building strong relationships and inspiring trust and confidence in the process. As a healthcare professional, I realize that each of us has a responsibility to help other health care professionals understand organizational goals, new program policies, and the many contributions we can make to the health and well-being of our citizens and the nation. As mentioned by Hertsgaard, Healthcare; Living Through the Next Fifty Years (2011); Ã¢â¬Å"The effectiveness of new program implementation, or policy change can be undervalued by many health care professions that view health care decision making as only being made by a handful of individuals that may not particularly benefit the whole. If value is to be added, all affected by new program, or policy change should understand the benefits of inclusion of all healthcare disciplines as partners willing to assume leadership positions. If those affected choose to abdicate leadership roles, they give others power over our future as health care professionalsÃ¢â¬ . An example used to illustrate my argument that the ability of leadership to impact, new procedures, policies, can be noted in the passage of the Affordable Care Act, as noted by Heifetz; Leadership Without Easy Answers (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"While the Affordable Care Act offers the potential to positively impact health care, we have a lot of work to do as regulations are implemented at the national and state levels. Implementation of health care reform may offer yet another test of our political system as Democrats and Republicans play out their very different health care visions. The federal health care reform law does not create a new system but does fill gaps in our existing system. It is a product of both a fragmented political process, which compels compromise, and our fragmented health care system, which limits reformersÃ¢â¬â¢ options to move awayÃ from the status quo. Strong leadership will be required to realize the potential and promise for health care reformÃ¢â¬Å". I do believe that because of transformational and transactional leadership the passage of the Affordable Care Act was possible. Below illustrates several fundamental institutional, program, and policies changes leadership will have to strategically implement with the passage of the transformational Affordable Care Act as noted by Zimmerman, Leadership in an Evolving Health Care System (2012); Ã¢â¬Å"It provides for: * Significant innovation with a focus on improved patient outcomes achieved through integrated care systems; * Fundamental payment reform, including capitation and bundled payments; * Expansion of pay-for-performance, where payment will be linked to outcomes in outpatient care; * Refocusing the system on wellness and prevention; andÃ * Levels of transparency and accountability never before demanded of our health care system or its providersÃ¢â¬ Furthermore, Zimmerman argues that for fundamental changes to occur; implementation of new policy and program change should be carried out by all individual as the system thrives on continuous innovationÃ¢â¬âjust like strong leaders doÃ¢â¬Å". Despite the limitations of our current delivery system, I do believe that leaders in the private sector health care see opportunities for innovation and change as our health care system evolves. Fixing our broken health care system will require courageous and innovative leadership on all fronts. There will continue to be strong reasonable voices all along the political spectrum that disagree about what changes are necessary, how to fix whatÃ¢â¬â¢s broken and how to pay for the fixes. As Heifetz suggests in Leadership on the line (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"the fact is that organizations dont just change because of new systems, processes or new organization structures. They change because the people within the organization adapt and change too. Only when the people within it have made their own personal transitions can an organization truly reap the benefits of change, and good leadership recognizes and attempt to improve on those ideasÃ¢â¬ . As I reflect on the state of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s health care leadership, I find that those individuals who have had the greatest impact are the ones who have let go of the consequences of that leadership. That is, rather than play it safe by reacting to consensus opinion; they have chosen to passionately lead to aÃ transcendent vision. In essence they have rejected the politics of transactional leadership, and taken a position in service of what to them is a moral or ethical imperative. In his book, The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell identifies three types of leaders who have disproportionate impact on influencing their peers. Ã¢â¬Å"These are people who are either well-connected, serve as mavens, or act as salesmen. * The first are individuals who act as communication nodes for the spreading of information. * Mavens are knowledgeable individuals who delight in sharing that knowledge with others without seeking personal gain. * Salesmen are in many ways the most important. These people have the capacity to emotionally influence their constituents. They have presence or charisma, and easily influence others through their capacity to express and elicit common emotions.Ã¢â¬ In conclusion, it is the job of leaders to create that environments in which letting go of the consequences of leading to a transcendent vision can inspire their followers and allow them to reconnect to the meaning and purpose in their work. In a world of exponential change, where leaders must serve in the capacity of change agent, transformational leadership is paramount. It is a position of great risk, requiring courage and can only be successful when driven by the passion of a transcendent vision. It is imperative to find joy in the doing, to make the journey and destination the same. References 1. Baldwin, C. and Linnea, A. The Circle Way: A Leader in Every Chair. San Francisco: Berritt- Koehler Publishers, 2010. 2. Gladwell M. The Tipping Point. How Little Things Can Make A Big Difference. Boston, Little Brown and Company, 2000. 3. Heifetz, R.A Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, Ma: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012. 4. Heifetz, R.A and Linsky, A. Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Though the Dangers of Leading. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012. 5. Hertsgaard, M. Healthcare: Living Through the Next Fifty Years. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2011. 6. Zimmerman, C. Leadership in an Evolving Health Care System. New York: Free Press, 2011
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Vegetarianism and Cancer Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Being a vegetarian is becoming more and more popular in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society with the need to be politically correct. As doctors look further in to this lifestyle they are finding more and more benefits to a person being a vegetarian. In an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Vegetarian Diets During Cancer TreatmentÃ¢â¬ written by Donna Paglia, M.S., R.D. discuss the benefits to being a vegetarian as far as cancer goes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Within the article she discuss the research that shows that by having a vegetarian diet you can reduce your cancer rates. Researchers are currently looking at the multitude of antioxidants and phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and legumes, as a result of some promising studies showing these foods' anti-cancer properties. This research is leading us to believe that a vegetarian diet may be one of the best preventive measures against certain cancers. Though there has not been any consensus on the type diet that should be used vegetarian is seen to be one of the best ways to go. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã She also discuss the different foods that should be eaten during the treatment for cancer. She shows several charts with different foods and the amounts that should be consumed. She suggest a diet that is high in protein as well as high in calories. This is to meet the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s demands, as well as to maximize the value of a reduced volume of food. Small, frequent, high calorie snacks may be helpful. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã She also discuss the different type of vegetarianism such as veganism and how they can adjust there diets to obtain these benefits. She gives a several examples of the type of the food that can eat and the measurement. She clarifies the different types of vegetarianism and some of their benefits. This gives a well rounded point view. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã She gives a lot of great information that would help people to make decision on whether or not to become a vegetarian during cancer treatment.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Dhobighat and Kahaani Film reviews [Student Name] [Course Title] [Course Supervisor] Film reviews Introduction: The Indian film industry has never been popular for its art films. Art films in Indian cinemas usually try to portray a particular aspect of the Indian culture and norm. These movies avoid all the glitz and glamour normally found in Indian movies. No glitz or glamour usually restricts these movies to a low budget nor are these movies able to attract a large number of audience to the cinema.Directors that usually make such movies try to get a point across to the audience using the cinema screen to portray their view of a particular issue within the community. Dhobighat The movie starts off showing Arun (Amir Khan) moving into a shabby apartment in an old locality of Mumbai. The film depicts Arun as an artist who meets Shia (Monica Dogra) an American investment banker at one of his exhibitions. The two fall for each other and end up spending the night together.Shai expects A run would commit to their new found relationship but instead Arun makes it clear that he is not interested in a long term relationship and their night together was nothing more than a one night stand. Shai angry at ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude leaves the apartment (Gurbaxani, 2011). This scene depicts a cultural trend that has greatly influenced the modern Indian society. Indian women are known to be conservative. They are forbidden to have premarital sexual relationships. However influenced by western culture, more and more Indian women have been engaging in premarital sex (Dhawan & Kurup, 2006).Spending the night with Arun highlights the western influence that has been a part of the Indian society for quite some time now. Whereas getting angry at Arun for his lack of commitment portrays the conservative Indian side that has been a tradition with in the Indian society. Munna (Prateik Babbar) is the laundry boy for Shai and Arun. Munna aspires to become a famous actor. Munna has a brother who has links to the underworld and his brother tries to use his links within the industry to try and get Munna a break even though Munna is against his brothers activities.Later on in the movie MunnaÃ¢â¬â¢s brother is murdered probably because of his ties to the underworld (Gurbaxani, 2011). The movie in this scene highlights the underworld influence that has made its way to the Indian film industry. There have been many instances and incidents where mob bosses from the Indian underworld have funded and backed various producers. Anyone who has refused to work in mob backed movies has received threats and sometimes even been targeted by the underworld. Initially the mob bosses were just like any other fans of bollywood superstars.However all that changed when one of these mobsters started financing movies of an actress he fancied. Soon the rest of the underworld got on the idea. Refusal of banks to invest in Indian cinema forced the producers to accept offerings made by the mob b osses (Corliss, 2002). Munna arrives at ShaiÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment to collect her laundry and the two soon become good friends. Munna offers to become her guide and in return Shai promises she would prepare a portfolio for Munna which he plans to send out to various producers. Munna soon starts developing feelings for Shai but is unable to express his feelings for her (Gurbaxani, 2011).India has been a country where people have been divided into different castes and creeds. From ancient times the caste system has defined the social, financial and economic lives of the Indian people. Marriage of an individual is limited to his or her caste, castes are defined by birth and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s caste decides the job that person is best suited for (Callaham & Pavich, 2011). The movie cites MunnaÃ¢â¬â¢s lower caste and the difference of financial status as the main reasons as to why he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t confess his fee lings to Shai. Meanwhile Shai gets obsessed wit Arun and starts stalking him .The building opposite to ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment is under construction and the builder happens to be ShaiÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Taking advantage of this fact Shai uses the building as a means to take ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s pictures without his knowledge. Arun on the other hand has his mind set on the tapes that belonged to the previous tenant of the house. The tapes contain messages from a woman named Yasmin (Kriti Malhotra) to her brother. Arun watches those tapes and soon starts drawing inspiration from them (Gurbaxani, 2011). It is normal for artists to draw inspiration from daily objects.Different artists gain inspiration from different day to day objects and people. These inspirations can be from friends, family or even a song they like (Barnett, 2012). The movie cites the tapes by Yasmin as a means of inspiration for ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s work. To make a living and promote his dream of becoming a movie star Munna works as a laundrier by day and kills rats for different localities by night time. On ce while taking some pictures Shai comes across Munna while he is on his night job working as an exterminator. Shai takes his picture while Munna is working. Angry and confused Munna makes a run for it.Arun watches the last video left by Yasmin in which she confesses that her husband is in fact having an affair and shows signs that she would probably kill herself. Feeling frustrated Arun leaves the apartment for good. Shai gets hold of Munna and asks him for ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s new address. Initially Munna hesitates and lies about not knowing the where abouts of Arun but eventually gives her ArunÃ¢â¬â¢s new address (Gurbaxani, 2011). The film depicts Yasmin as the narrator and uses her experiences of Mumbai to portray the famous landmarks of the city in a completely new perspective.The narration of YasminÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences gives Dhobighat the shape of a love letter written to the city of Mumbai. The movie uses various situations to provide a comparison of the physical and mental diff erences amongst the various sects of individuals living in Mumbai. An example is a scene from the movie in which Shai wants to conduct MunnaÃ¢â¬â¢s photo shoot outside the studio. However Munna being a native of Mumbai does not find the sights and sceneries of Mumbai as fascinating as Shai does (Gurbaxani, 2011). Normally Bollywood films are very expensive and can cost up to $20 million (The Economist, 2000).Up until the 1990s the sets, costumes and special effects used were mediocre in quality. The popularity of Hollywood movies in India forced the directors and producers to improve the quality of their movies (The Economist, 2000). However Dhobighat cost a mere $1. 8 million a fact that astonished and amazed majority of Indian and international film critics (Pillai, 2010). Indian filmmakers find that shooting in foreign countries draws the public to the cinema. Various foreign locations have been used in the past to make the movie more appealing to the masses.Either film makers choose foreign locations to get away from the crowd or they argue that it is the need of the script that makes them choose those foreign locations. Incentives given to the indian film industry by the government also attracts various film makers towards the idea of shooting at foreign locations (Trivedi, 2012). Dhobighat was produced using guerilla techniques in which multiple localities of Mumbai were used to make the movie. The director Kiran Rao didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use any kind of set at all. Kiran wanted to Dhobighat to be a tribute to the people of Mumbai (OutlookIndia. com, 2010).Most of the parts in the film were in English something that troubled Kiran and Amir Khan. Majority of indian population had a hard time understanding English a factor that most likely would have affected the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s business. The production team decided to dub the English scenes in Hindi (Pillai, 2010). The distributor of the movie for United States and India was UTV. UTV a subsidiary of Walt Disney h as been one of the major distributors of Indian cinema and has been one of the prominent entities in bringing Indian cinema to the world. The last decade or so has been the turning point of the company.UTV took up movies that changed the way movies were made in Bollywood. A number of these movies were hits. Peepli live, Rang De Basanti and Brfi are examples of some of the great films that UTV Motion Pictures have worked on. Senior Vice President at UTV Motion Pictures U. S. A dubbed the movie as being different to what Indian movie fans are used to. He was also critical about the reception the movie was going to get. Despite the Academy Awards taking place on the same date UTV released the movie on 21st January 2011 in United States and India.The release date couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be delayed because India was hosting the world cup and the film crew wanted to release the film on the same date to prevent the production of pirated copies. UTV gave preference to the Indian fans because the mo vie mainly targeted the Indian audience. UTV were encouraged after the Dhobighat got positive response at the Toronto and London film festivals (Sydney, 2011). Dhobighat was a success at the box office. Despite everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations Dhobighat was liked by the Indian population raking in more than $2. 6 million in India.The film did fairly well in United States, United Kingdom and Dubai making more than $780000. Internationally the movie did quite well making a whopping $1. 6 million. The success of Dhobighat pleased the lead star and producer Amir Khan. Amir Khan further commented and dubbed the movie as a success because of the type of movie it was. Kahaani The movie starts at Kolkata metro rail where a gas attack takes place killing the passengers on board. Fast forward a few years a pregnant woman named Vidya Bagachi (Vidya Balan) arrives in Kolkata from London during a religious festival.Vidya is a software engineer who is searching for her missing husband. During her v isit to the local police station Vidya meets Satyaki Rana Sinha (Parambrata Chatterjee) a police officer who agrees to help Vidya in finding her husband. The two visit National Data Center where Vidya claims her husband worked (Dhaniwala, 2012). In India the police are usually considered incompetent and inefficient. They have frequently been criticized by the mass population for not taking their jobs seriously, accepting bribes and folding after being pressurized by top officials.However the movie shows Indian police in a positive light and in particular the character of Rana playing the role of a true police officer and helping Vidya in her quest to find her husband (Pagnamenta, 2013). At the NDC office Vidya and Rana are perplexed when human resource department at NDC deny having employed VidyaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. However the head of the human resource department suggests that VidyaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband resembles a lot like an ex-employee, Milan Damji (Indraneil Sengupta). The head of t he HR department is murdered by a hitman named Bob Biswas (Saswata Chatterjee) before she could share DamjiÃ¢â¬â¢s records with Vidya.Vidya and Rana break into the records of NDC to get more information on Damji. While searching for DamjiÃ¢â¬â¢s records Vidya and Rana have a close encounter with Bob. The two barely escape with their lives. Vidya meets an intelligence bureau officer Khan (Nawazuddin Siddiqui) who is investigating the gas attack of Kolkata. Khan warns Vidya about the dangers of the case and informs her that Damji is wanted fugitive who is the prime suspect of the gas attacks. Khan advises Vidya to back off and leave Damjee to the police. However Vidya completely ignores KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and visits the address stated on DamjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s records (Dhaniwala, 2012).Indians believe that when a woman sets her mind to it she can achieve anything for the sake of her husband. These acts of courage by women originate from the story in Ramayana of a king named Dasaratha a nd his queen Kaikeyi who showed courage in the face of fear and saved her husband from imminent death. The movie depicts Vidya in the same manner as Kaikeyi who besides the fact being pregnant is willing to risk her life and the life of her child to find her husband and ensure his safety. Kahaani isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the first movie to depict such actions from Indian wives.Over the years there have been numerous films that have shown Indian wives going to great lengths to protect and obey their husbands (Murthy, 2001). Upon reaching the stated address Vidya and Rana meet an errand boy working at a small tea shop. The errand boy recognizes Damjee and gives Vidya the name of R. Sridhar an officer of NDC who frequently visited Damjee during his stay at the apartment. Bob on the instructions of Sridhar makes an attempt on VidyaÃ¢â¬â¢s life but dies in the process. The examination of BobÃ¢â¬â¢s phone gives Vidya and Rana an IP address.Vidya confronts Sridhar at his office. A scuffle breaks o ur between the two and Vidya eventually ends up shooting Sridhar. The death of Sridhar angers Khan who wanted Sridhar for questioning. Vidya procures a phone number from SridharÃ¢â¬â¢s computer and dials it. It is revealed that the number belongs to Bhaskaran K. (Dhritiman Chaterji) an Investigation Bureau officer and KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s superior. Vidya informs Bhaskaran that she has some sensitive documents left behind by Sridhar and threatens him that if he does not cooperate she could use those documents to send him to jail.Bhaskaran tells Vidya straight up that he is not associated with any of this. However a few minutes later Vidya receives a call asking for the documents in return for the safety of her husband (Dhaniwala, 2012). Suspecting the call was from Damji Vidya agrees to meet the caller at the place of his choice with Khan and Rana on her trail. The caller turns out to be Damji and during their talks Damjee attacks Vidya. Damji menacingly points his gun at Vidya who uses h er prosthetic abdomen; she was using to fake her pregnancy, to knock the gun out of his hand.Vidya kills Damji and flees the scene. It is later revealed that Vidya was in fact Arup BasuÃ¢â¬â¢s (Abir Chatterji) wife. Arup was killed in the gas attack and she had returned to India to seek revenge of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death (Dhaniwala, 2012). Again Kahaani isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the first movie where women have been shown seeking revenge for themselves or for the death of someone they loved. Bandit Queen is an example of such a movie where a poor woman who is raped and abused by high caste men in her village. She joins a gang of bandits and seeks revenge upon all who did her wrong.Another story is that of ek haseena thi where a man takes advantage of a simple woman and frames her for drug possession. Upon her release from prison she sets out t find the man who framed her to seek her revenge (rain singer, 2011). The film director and the co-writer of the script Ghosh had trouble finding prod ucers for Kahaani. His film Aladdin was a flop despite having a star studded cast and the producers were reluctant in investing in his future ventures. The idea of a pregnant woman as the lead actress and small time actors in supporting roles were also factors that discouraged the producers from financing the movie.The low cast of shooting in Kolkata and the small budget attracted Ghosh to the idea of shooting the movie in Kolkata (Zee news, 2012). The script writer Adviata Kala did some extensive research for the film. She based most of the story on her personal experience of the city when she was searching for her boyfriend. She stated that even though there was a difference in the culture and the language barrier existed the people were very hospitable and welcoming something that can be seen in the movie (Mitra, 2012). To prepare for her role Vidya Balan visited a doctor to consult about the prosthetic belly.Vidya also consulted her doctor of how a pregnant woman was to act and how what troubles would a pregnant woman normally face. Vidya claimed that she used to portray as a pregnant woman in her college days which helped her out in her out in the film (zee news, 2012). Like Kiran Roa Ghosh used the technique of guerilla filming for his movie. The director admitted that guerilla shooting in the busy city of Kolkata during the festival was not easy. Frequently the participants of the festival stare directly into the camera or in the faces of the actors (Movie Talkies, 2012).Ghosh shot different localities of Kolkata without the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Ghosh thought it would be easier to shoot without any hassle brought on by the crowd and without the need of crowd control. The shooting of the film and of Durga Pooja festival was completed in 64 days. Ghosh wanted the character of Bob to be of a hitman that would easily blend into the crowd. Ghosh briefed Chatterjee over his role and told him to portray Bob as being polite. To make the character seem mor e believable Ghosh gave him a bald patch and advised Chatterjee to frequently rub his nails, as Indians believe rubbing ones nails prevents hair loss.Bobs character received remarkable praise from the critics and from the viewers. His famous one liner from the film became hit on the internet with individuals quoting him on different social networking websites. The young generation of India was really impressed by Bob and some of them even approached Ghosh with the idea of a graphic novel based on Bob. It is also rumored that some one has approached Ghosh with the idea of a television series based on the life of Bob (Mukherjee, 2012). The main distributors of Kahaani were Viacom 18 Motion Pictures.Viacom 18 Motion Pictures has been around for quite some time now dealing with Indian movies. Some of the famous movies that have done business with Viacom are Players, Son of sardar and Tanu weds Manu. The movie was a success at the box office. Initially during the first week the movie exp erienced a poor response. The film made $370000 in the province of Bengal in the time span of three days and during that time the seat occupancy rose from 47% on the first day to 94% on the third. The movie generated $4. 4 million in the first week passing its production cost of $1. million. By the end of the second week the movie made up to $7. 9 million in India alone. Box office India dubbed the movie a super hit just after two weeks (Box office India, 2012). Oversees the movie did reasonably well being able to generate the revenue of $1. 5 million from United Kingdom, United States, New Zealand, Australia, Pakistan and Malaysia. Hindustan times estimated that Kahaani had generated $19 million world wide within 50 days of its release (First Post, 2012). KahaaniÃ¢â¬â¢s success brought on a new trend among Bollywood producers and directors.Kolkata became a favorite location for the industry. The use of Kolkata as an opening scene was completely different from traditional Bollywoo d movies that had been using Mumbai and Delhi as their prime locations for shooting. The cityÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial buildings and the hand rickshaws all added to the magnificent scenario that was presented by Ghosh in the movie. The release of the movie also had a significant impact on the tourism in Kolkata. In particular the guest house used by Vidya in the movie has attracted a lot of tourists (OneIndia. com, 2012).Ghosh plans to produce a sequel for Kahaani and use Vidya Balan as his lead actress in the same recurring role. The shooting of Kahaani 2 is to take place in 2013. The film industry has already seen the making of Kahaani in Tamil and Telegue. Conclusion The success of low budget art movies like Dhobighat and Kahaani shows a change in the trend that has been found amongst the Indian viewers. Viewers have now grown tired of all the love stories and senseless action movies that has been the recipe for a successful Bollywood movie. The viewers now want to watch movies that hav e a strong plot and have good stories.The success of Kahaani and Dhobighat despite their unknown actors is proof that indian viewers want to watch movies with a good plot. Expensive movies such as Agent Vinod and Rush are proof that a big budget and a star studded cast does not guarantee the success of a movie. Using real locations instead of expensive sets is another factor that separates Kahaani and Dhobighat from other movies. Instead of using foreign locations these movies opted to use popular areas of Indian cities to shoot their movies significantly reducing the budget needed for the movies.Art movies in the past decade or so have generated a great deal of revenue not only in India but overseas as well. List of References Barnett, L. , 2012. Top artists reveal how to find creative inspiration. [Online] Available at: http://www. guardian. co. uk/culture/2012/jan/02/top-artists-creative-inspiration [Accessed 8 April 2013]. Box office India, 2012. Agent Vinod Average Opening Kaha ani Extraordinary Week Two. [Online] Available at: http://boxofficeindia. com/boxdetail. php? page=shownews&articleid=4192&nCat= [Accessed 10 April 2013]. Callaham, T. amp; Pavich, R. , 2011. Indian caste system. [Online] Available at: http://www. csuchico. edu/~cheinz/syllabi/asst001/spring98/india. htm [Accessed 8 April 2013]. Corliss, R. , 2002. Married to the Mob. [Online] Available at: http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,361780,00. html [Accessed 9 April 2013]. Dhaniwala, M. , 2012. Kahaani Review. [Online] Available at: http://www. koimoi. com/reviews/kahaani-review/ [Accessed 10 April 2013]. Dhawan, H. & Kurup, S. , 2006. Pre-marital sex: Girls like to keep mum. [Online] Available at: http://articles. timesofindia. ndiatimes. com/2006-10-24/india/27785487_1_report-sexual-debut-indian-women [Accessed 8 April 2013]. First Post, 2012. Kahaani: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the story behind the numbers? [Online] Available at: http://www. firstpost. com/bollywood/kahaani-whats-the- story-behind-the-numbers-253056. html [Accessed 10 April 2013]. Gurbaxani, A. , 2011. Ã¢â¬ËDhobi GhatÃ¢â¬â¢ Is A Sparkling Debut. [Online] Available at: http://mumbaiboss. com/2011/01/21/%E2%80%98dhobi-ghat%E2%80%99-is-a-sparkling-debut/ [Accessed 8 April 2013]. Mitra, I. , 2012. Vidya's journey was my own: Advaita Kala. [Online] Available at:
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Issues of Race, Class, and Gender Race, Class and Gender issues are commonly brought up. Throughout history many groups have been stigmatized not just for their race, but for their sex, and class as well. People of lower class incomes get slandered for where they live and for not having the economical means to purchase most common goods. Women have been considered the weaker sex for centuries, and currently, some of the old fashioned and ignorant theories on women being subordinate to men prevail. In the article Rethinking Womens Biology the author position appeared to be that society dictates what a woman means and teaches it from childhood. The old concept of blue for a boy and pink for a girl starts out from birth and isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Only giving women 5% of television coverage opposed to men receiving 92%. Sports can trivialize women symbolically. For example, College sport teams may name the male team tigers and the womens team kittens. (Eitzen Baca Zinn, 1989). This can coincide with the males being considered strong and the women being sexual. Roles were also mentioned as societys prescriptions for those of their gender status because the norms are expectations get built into their senses worth and identity as a certain kind of human being and because they believe that their societys ways are the natural way. (Lorber,1992, p.42). Ah, Ya Throw Like a Girl was similar to the above to articles. It suggested how roles of society predict female and male roles. He referred to personal childhood memories. Reminiscing how while playing sports, his father, would encourage him to throw hard ball overhand. And how if he didnt he was throwing like a girl. He would be teased and taunted by friends and family if he did not play the sport hard and rough, because thats how boys do it. He also pointed out that his sister was more talented in sports than he but could not play. Basically, this authors position was traditional roles needs to be deleted with a new modern way of thinking. We know more now than we did when traditional male and female roles were established and we should all concur with the new age liberation and equality. (Messner, 1992) In AShow MoreRelatedThe Help Displays Issues Of Gender, Class, And Race. The1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Help displays issues of gender, class, and race. The wealthy white citizens are dominant in society and government. African Americans have segregation laws, pushing them to strive for equality. There is a push for upward mobility from the help to experience the American dream. Men are expected to work while women stay at home with their children. Men appear to be aggressive and hold dominance over women. Women are held to higher standards of beauty. 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